C12H17NO6 / 271.27
4-Aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside is a chemical compound that is used in biological research to study inflammatory diseases. It is also used as an immunochemical assay for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-Aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside binds to messenger RNA (mRNA) and inhibits its translation into protein by binding to the acyl chain of the mRNA molecule. This agent has been shown to be taken up by epithelial cells, which may be due to protease activity. The uptake of 4-aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside has been shown in animal models of cancer, suggesting it may have anticancer properties.
4-Aminophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PAPG) is a chemical compound that has gained significant attention in various fields of research and industry due to its unique properties and potential implications. In this paper, we will explore the different aspects of PAPG, including its definition, physical and chemical properties, synthesis and characterization, analytical methods, biological properties, toxicity and safety in scientific experiments, applications in scientific experiments, current state of research, potential implications in various fields of research and industry, limitations, and future directions.
Definition and Background
PAPG is a sugar derivative that contains a galactose moiety linked to an aminophenyl group. It is commonly used as a substrate for beta-galactosidase activity assays and as a model compound for studying carbohydrate-protein interactions. PAPG has been used extensively in biochemistry research, and its unique properties have made it a valuable tool for many applications.
Physical and Chemical Properties
PAPG is a white to off-white powder that is soluble in water and ethanol. Its melting point ranges from 155 °C to 160°C, and its specific rotation is +15.0° to +19.0°. The molecular formula of PAPG is C12H17NO6, and its molecular weight is 271.27 g/mol. PAPG is a crystalline compound that can be easily synthesized and purified.
Synthesis and Characterization
The synthesis of PAPG can be achieved through two primary methods: the Koenigs-Knorr method and the Michaels-Addition method. In the Koenigs-Knorr method, PAPG is synthesized by reacting a protected galactose derivative with 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. In the Michaels-Addition method, PAPG is synthesized by reacting a protected galactose derivative with 4-aminophenol in the presence of copper(II) acetate.
The characterization of PAPG can be achieved through various methods, including NMR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis, and mass spectrometry. These techniques provide valuable information on the structure, purity, and identity of PAPG.
PAPG is commonly used as a substrate for beta-galactosidase activity assays, which are essential for many applications in biochemistry research. These assays measure the hydrolysis of PAPG by beta-galactosidase, which releases p-nitrophenol, a yellow chromophore, that can be detected spectrophotometrically at 405 nm.
PAPG is a non-toxic compound that is considered safe for use in scientific experiments. It has low cytotoxicity, and studies have shown that it is not mutagenic or genotoxic. PAPG is commonly used as a substrate for beta-galactosidase activity assays in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures.
Toxicity and Safety in Scientific Experiments
PAPG has been shown to be safe for use in scientific experiments. It is non-toxic, non-mutagenic, and non-genotoxic. However, as with all chemical compounds, proper safety protocols should be followed when handling PAPG, and proper personal protective equipment should be worn at all times.
Applications in Scientific Experiments
PAPG has a wide range of applications in scientific experiments, including the detection of beta-galactosidase activity in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures, the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions, and the development of new diagnostic tools and therapies. PAPG is a valuable tool in biochemistry research and is used extensively in various fields, including microbiology, molecular biology, and bioengineering.
Current State of Research
The current state of research on PAPG is focused on the development of new techniques for the synthesis and characterization of PAPG, the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions, and the development of new diagnostic tools and therapies. Recent advances in the fields of biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, and bioengineering have led to new applications and discoveries related to PAPG.
Potential Implications in Various Fields of Research and Industry
PAPG has the potential for significant implications in various fields of research and industry. Its unique properties make it a valuable tool for the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions, and its ability to detect beta-galactosidase activity has important implications in microbiology and molecular biology research. PAPG can also be used in the development of new diagnostic tools and therapies for various diseases and disorders.
Limitations and Future Directions
Despite its many applications and potential implications, PAPG has some limitations that need to be addressed. One major limitation of PAPG is its solubility in water and ethanol, which limits its use in aqueous solutions. Another limitation is the sensitivity of the beta-galactosidase activity assay, which can be affected by various factors, including pH, temperature, and the presence of other compounds.
In the future, new techniques for the synthesis and characterization of PAPG will need to be developed to address its limitations. Additionally, new applications and discoveries related to PAPG will need to be explored, particularly in the fields of bioengineering and nanotechnology. Further research is necessary to fully understand the potential implications of PAPG in various fields of research and industry.
Some potential future directions for research on PAPG include:
1. Developing new techniques for the synthesis and characterization of PAPG to improve its solubility in aqueous solutions.
2. Investigating the potential of PAPG in the development of new diagnostic tools and therapies for various diseases and disorders.
3. Exploring the use of PAPG in the development of new carbohydrate-based materials for bioengineering and nanotechnology.
4. Investigating the potential of PAPG in the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions in living organisms.
5. Developing new applications for PAPG in microbiology and molecular biology research.
6. Investigating the potential of PAPG in the development of new treatments for genetic disorders related to beta-galactosidase activity.
7. Developing new analytical methods for detecting PAPG in complex biological samples.
8. Investigating the potential of PAPG in the development of new imaging techniques for biomedical applications.
9. Exploring the use of PAPG in the development of new biocompatible polymers for drug delivery and tissue engineering.
10. Investigating the potential of PAPG in the development of new biosensors for environmental monitoring and food safety.
|CAS No: 5094-33-7 MDL No: MFCD00067362 Chemical Formula: C12H17NO6 Molecular Weight: 271.27|
|References: 1. Díaz-González M, González-García M, Costa-García A, Electroanalysis 2005, 17, 21, p1901|
手机： 18310328607 , 13621067991,13552979007