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634-74-2 , D-Rhamnose, CAS:634-74-2

634-74-2 , D-Rhamnose,
C6H12O5 / 164.16

D-鼠李糖, D-Rhamnose

D-Rhamnose is a type of monosaccharide sugar that is commonly found in nature. Its unique structures and properties make it useful in various scientific fields and industries. In this paper, we will explore the physical and chemical properties of D-Rhamnose, its synthesis and characterization methods, microscopic and analytical techniques for its detection, and its biological properties. In addition, we will discuss the potential implications and limitations of D-Rhamnose in various fields of research and industry.

Definition and Background:

D-Rhamnose is an aldose sugar that is also a component of many naturally occurring constituents such as flavonoids, glycosides, and polysaccharides. It is found in fruits such as apples, citrus, and berries, as well as in vegetables, herbs, and plants. D-Rhamnose has a molecular formula of C6H12O5 and a molecular weight of 164.16 g/mol.

Physical and Chemical Properties:

D-Rhamnose has several unique physical and chemical properties that make it a popular choice in scientific research. It is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, and chloroform. Its melting point ranges between 81 and 92°C, and its specific rotation is between +18.5 and +20.5 degrees. D-Rhamnose is a reducing sugar that can participate in various chemical reactions such as glycation and oxidation.

Synthesis and Characterization:

D-Rhamnose is synthesized by several methods, including chemical synthesis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Chemical synthesis involves two main approaches: the Koenigs-Knorr method and the Heyns method. Enzymatic hydrolysis uses various glycosidase enzymes such as β-L-rhamnosidase, which break down the glycosidic bonds. Characterization of D-Rhamnose molecules can be achieved by various techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction.

Analytical Methods:

Microscopic and analytical techniques are used to detect D-Rhamnose both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography are the most commonly used methods to separate and identify D-Rhamnose. In addition, methods like capillary electrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and voltammetry are also used for the detection of D-Rhamnose.

Biological Properties:

D-Rhamnose has several biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. It can be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of various diseases and infections. D-Rhamnose also has prebiotic properties that promote the growth of beneficial microbiota in the gut.

Toxicity and Safety in Scientific Experiments:

Studies have shown that D-Rhamnose is relatively safe and non-toxic at moderate doses. However, excessive consumption can lead to gastrointestinal distress, bloating, and diarrhea. Animal studies have also shown that D-Rhamnose can have adverse hepatic and renal effects in high doses.

Applications in Scientific Experiments:

D-Rhamnose has several applications in scientific research, including drug delivery, biocatalysis, and bioremediation. In pharmaceuticals, D-Rhamnose is used as a carrier molecule or chiral building block. In biocatalysis, D-Rhamnose is used to synthesize various biologically active molecules. In bioremediation, D-Rhamnose is used to degrade pollutants and toxins in the environment.

Current State of Research:

Currently, the research on D-Rhamnose is focused on its biological properties and potential applications in medicine, food, and cosmetics. Recent studies have shown that D-Rhamnose has immunomodulatory effects and can enhance the immune response to various diseases. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms behind these effects and their potential therapeutic implications.

Limitations and Future Directions:

Although D-Rhamnose has several potential applications, there are also some limitations and challenges to its use. One of the major challenges is the limited availability of D-Rhamnose from natural sources. Therefore, researchers are investigating alternative synthetic methods to produce D-Rhamnose on a large scale. Another challenge is the low bioavailability of D-Rhamnose, which limits its efficacy as a therapeutic agent. Future research should focus on improving its solubility and bioavailability to enhance its therapeutic potential. Additionally, more studies are needed to investigate the safety and toxicity of D-Rhamnose in humans and animals. Lastly, we need to explore the potential of D-Rhamnose in emerging areas of research, such as nanotechnology and biotechnology.


D-Rhamnose is a versatile and useful sugar molecule that has several applications in scientific research and industry. In this paper, we have discussed its physical and chemical properties, synthesis and characterization, analytical methods, biological properties, toxicity and safety, and potential applications. Despite its current limitations, D-Rhamnose has significant potential in various fields of research and industry. Further research is needed to fully explore its properties and implications.

CAS Number634-74-2
Product NameD-Rhamnose
IUPAC Name(2S,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanal
Molecular FormulaC6H12O5
Molecular Weight164.16 g/mol
Canonical SMILESCC(C(C(C(C=O)O)O)O)O
Isomeric SMILESC[C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@@H](C=O)O)O)O)O

CAS No: 634-74-2 Synonyms: 6-Deoxy-D-mannoseD-D-Mannomethylose MDL No: MFCD11978165 Chemical Formula: C6H12O5 Molecular Weight: 164.16


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